What is an Annotated Bibliography?
A bibliography is a list of references to books, articles, or other items consulted during the research process, while an Annotation is a note of explanation and evaluation of a particular item being referenced. Therefore, an Annotated Bibliography is a list of references that include an explanatory note below each reference that summarizes and provides an evaluation of the content of the reference.
What is the Benefit of Writing an Annotated Bibliography?
The process of writing an annotated bibliography provides a structured process to learn about a research topic. It causes you to read the available research (also referred to as the literature) more closely as you develop a better understanding of the topic, related issues, and current trends. Time spent writing an annotated bibliography will help you develop a well thought out thesis statement or develop a literature review.
What should an Annotation Include?
A well-written annotation consists of three parts:
How should an Entry to an Annotated Bibliography be Formatted?
Below is an example of how to format a reference and annotation:
Author’s Last Name, Initials, & 2nd Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title
of Journal, volume number (issue), page range. doi: xxx.xxxxx
This is an example of an annotation of a scholarly article. The annotation should be 200 to 300 words
long and include a Summary of the main points, arguments, and topics covered in the reference. Then
you should Evaluate the quality of the source compared to other sources in the bibliography. Your
evaluation may include notes on the goal, reliability, and objectivity of the reference being annotated.
Then you will want to include a Reflection that covers how the content of the reference changed your
understanding of the topic. How you intend to use the reference in your research? How does the
reference affect your thesis? If you do not intend to use the reference in your work then briefly explain
why. Once you finish writing your annotation go to the next double-spaced line and enter the next entry
of your annotated bibliography.
Hatnik, L., Calloway, S., Joy, N., Owen, F. A., & Constantine, G. A. (2017). Leadership creativity as social
action and transformation: A case study. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 14(3), 72-78.
This article presents a case study that addresses the difficulty students have in connecting class content
with real-life social problems. As a potential solution for this problem, students enrolled in a university
course on social, global, and environmental issues worked on a creative project with a charity that aids
women leaving incarceration. The course coupled this community work with class readings, discussions,
and guest speakers, leading students to have a deeper learning experience that also benefited the
target community. While the case study’s conclusions provide potentially helpful information, the authors
neglect to provide any hard evidence for the assumed difficulty in connecting class content to real-life
problems. Furthermore, the authors admit at one point that a few students doubted various aspects of
the class, but this group is not addressed in the conclusions section of the article. Despite a few
shortcomings, the case study does provide a useful strategy that can help young leaders gain real-world
experience which can be adapted to the high school setting I am researching.
How Should an Annotated Bibliography be Formatted using APA 7th edition
The format of an annotated bibliography follows the same format as any APA paper.
An example of an Annotated Bibliography
Create your own Annotated Bibliography by Downloading this Annotated Bibliography Template
Download the Annotated Bibliography Format Guide
For information on how to effectively write an annotated bibliography entry go to: